Chechnya's leader Ramzan Kadyrov has posted an Instagram video showing Russian opposition politician Mikhail Kasyanov in a sniper's crosshairs.
The new video is the latest in a series of threatening messages from Mr Kadyrov against Kremlin critics, whom he accuses of working for the West.
It shows Kasyanov talking to Vladimir Kara-Murza, a journalist who runs the pro-democracy opposition movement Open Russia. The movement was launched by exiled oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky.
The video was posted late on Sunday and has more than 16,000 "likes".
Kasyanov says he sees it as a direct death threat and will demand a criminal investigation.
The phrase "Whoever doesn't get it will get it!" is the title of a thriller that Mr Kadyrov says he has filmed, starring himself as a machine gun-toting all-action hero.